There is no doubt that magnification can make an enormous difference to the quality and accuracy of almost dental treatment, from improving margin identification to identifying cracks and root canals more easily. But which type of magnification is best?
In broad terms, dental magnification begins at around 2X the size of the original image and progresses upwards from there. Dental operating loupes are a good first step, offering image enlargement of between 2X and 6X that of the original. After this, though, magnifying lenses start to become heavy and onerous to wear, making it advisable to switch to a dental microscope, which can increase magnification by as much as 20X.
Naturally, then it makes sense for surgical loupes to be employed in more routine tasks that are less detail-oriented than say, endodontic procedures or dental surgery, which may require increased detail or precision, such as finding root apexes and or elusive secondary canals, for example. Generally-speaking, then, loupes are ideal for general practice, including dental hygiene work. However, thanks to advances in optics, the introduction of dental telescopes means that surgical loupes can now offer an incredible amount of detail and up to 6X magnification quite comfortably without dramatically increasing weight. This largely thanks to the introduction of Through the Lens (TTL) technology which not only enables an increased field size but also eliminates much of the hardware that can cause loupes to go out of alignment.
Dental microscopes, on the other hand, offer levels of image detail unrivalled by loupes, as well as the option of taking stills photographs or video footage, both of which can be useful for patient education, teaching and record keeping. One thing to bear in mind though: the higher the magnification level, the narrower your width of field is likely to be, which is not going to be terribly useful if you are working in a large section of the oral cavity. Depth of field is also correspondingly lowered, which can mean having to make adjustments when it comes to the introduction of instruments or if you need to see further back into the mouth.
Illumination can greatly increase image sharpness and clarity. With a dental microscope, illumination is integral to the optical mechanism and so cannot be directed away from the immediate viewing site. This is useful if you need to see straight downwards, such as when checking for canal cleanliness before obturation, but can prove tricky in other situations unless an additional operating light is introduced.
With dental loupes and surgical telescopes, illumination can be added via a dental headlight which can either clip onto the top of the glasses frame or be fixed onto a headband. Because it is placed directly in your line of sight, illumination is usually shadowless. Some clinicians may choose not to work with an additional overhead operating light. However, if you want to avoid eye strain, it is probably a good idea to use it to avoid creating too much of a contrast in lighting conditions between the treatment site and the immediately surrounding area.
These days, daylight-equivalent levels of illumination are available in both dental headlights and dental microscopes. Not only does this provide the correct colour temperature for exact tone matching when placing composite restorations or doing cosmetic work but it also helps to reduce eye strain. In the past, light sensitive materials could get prematurely cured with brighter lights because of increased heat. Now, however, the optional of a swing-in filter can be introduced to prevent this from happening.
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